Alerta naranja: ¿Cuáles son los síntomas más comunes del golpe de calor?

El golpe de calor ocurre cuando el cuerpo no puede enfriarse suficientemente rápido como para compensar la alta temperatura y sus efectos pueden poner en riesgo la vida.

Los niveles del Sistema de Alertas sobre Olas de Calor y Salud del SMN son cuatro y determinan el nivel de riesgo para la población, en especial para los grupos de riesgo: bebes y chicos, mayores de 65 y personas con enfermedades crónicas.

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Se usan colores: verde (no hay peligro para la salud), amarillo (hay peligro porque se superaron las temperaturas máximas y mínimas de una ciudad); naranja (hay peligro especialmente para los grupos de riesgo porque la ola de calor se mantiene en el tiempo) y rojo (es muy peligroso para toda la población).

El SMN informó hoy que las temperaturas altas se mantendrán hasta mañana, inclusive. “Se estiman temperaturas mínimas de hasta 25°C y temperaturas máximas de entre 35 y 40°C”, se precisó.

¿Cuáles son los síntomas más comunes del golpe de calor?

+ Temperatura corporal elevada (más de 39°C)
+ Sudoración excesiva
+ Sequedad en la boca
+ Pérdida del apetito
+ Pulso acelerado
+ Piel seca, roja y caliente
+ Dolor de cabeza o de estómago
+ Sensación de fatiga y cansancio
+ Náuseas y/o vómitos
+ Calambres musculares
+ Decaimiento
+ Estado de confusión, agitación o vértigo
+ Somnolencia y pérdida de conciencia en los casos más extremos

Ante algunos de esos síntomas:

+ Trasladar al afectado a la sombra, a un lugar fresco y tranquilo
+ Hacer que mantenga la cabeza un poco alta, e intentar refrescarlo (mojarle la ropa, aplicarle hielo en la cabeza)
+ Darle de beber agua fresca o un poco salada
+ Solicitar ayuda médica y, en el caso de urgencia, llamar al 107 (SAME) o el servicio de emergencias
local

Grupos de riesgo

En los mayores de 65, el envejecimiento disminuye naturalmente las autopercepción de las señales de alarma. “Con el paso de los años se reduce la sensación de calor, por lo que las personas mayores no perciben las altas temperaturas. Esto hace que no tomen las precauciones que deberían”, informan desde la Facultad de Medicina de la Fundación Barceló.

La sensación de debilidad y agotamiento puede ser común en los mayores, pero los especialistas aconsejan no pasarlos por alto. Esas también pueden ser señales del golpe de calor.

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Desde el Hospital Garrahan, señalan la importancia de proteger a los bebes y los chicos, uno de los grupos más vulnerables, en especial aquellos con enfermedades crónicas. “La prevención es fundamental para no sufrir un golpe de calor”, indican.

“El golpe de calor puede afectar a personas de cualquier edad, pero los grupos de mayor riesgo son los chicos, que no manifiestan los síntomas con facilidad, y los mayores de 65 años. En el caso de los bebés y los chicos es importante fomentar el consumo de agua, ofreciéndola de manera frecuente; evitar el consumo de gaseosas y de comida chatarra; controlar la exposición al sol, completamente entre las 10 y 16”, precisan desde el hospital pediátrico.

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Recuerdan que el riesgo crece tanto para los chicos como para los mayores y cuantos más días seguidos haya con tanto calor.

“Los chicos con enfermedades crónicas, como la diabetes, el cáncer, las enfermedades poco frecuentes, entre otras, pueden sufrir complicaciones”, dice a través de un comunicado Marcelo Andrade, jefe de clínica de los Consultorios Externos del Garrahan. En general, los chicos “pueden jugar en el agua o con agua, a la sombra, pero siempre con la supervisión de un adulto responsable”.

Fuente: lanacion.com

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